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Amoxil - General information
Amoxicillin - semisynthetic aminopenicillin, has a bactericidal effect with the optimum spectrum of antimicrobial activity, is not sensitive to mikoroorganizmam that can produce penicillinase.
Amoxicillin / clavulanate - penicillin protected with high efficiency of action against many bacteria, the advantage is the presence of clavulanic acid, which makes the drug-resistant lactamases (penicillinase)?. Clavulanic acid is a competitive irreversible inhibition of beta-lactamase, which allows the same to reduce the phenomenon of cross-resistance to antimicrobials.
It has an active effect on many organisms, including:
Gram (+) aerobes: Bacillus anthracis, Enterococcus (faecalis, faecium), Listeria monocytogenes, types of Corynebacterium, Nocardia asteroides, Staph. aureus, coagulase (-) staphylococci (including Staph epidermidis.), Str. agalactiae, Str. pneumoniae, Str. pyogenes, kinds Str. viridans;
gram (+) anaerobes: Clostridium, peptokokki, Peptostreptococcus species;
gram (-) aerobes: Bordetella pertussis, types of Brucella, E. coli, Gardnerella vag, Haemophilus influenzae, Helicobacter pylori, Klebsiella, Legionella, Moraxella catarrhalis (Branhamella catarrhalis), N. gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, Pasteurella multocida, Proteus mirabilis. , Pr. vulgaris, species of Salmonella, types of Shigella, Vibrio vibroion, Yersinia enterocolitica;
gram (-) anaerobes: species of Bacteroides (including Bacteroides fragilis), species of Fusobacterium;
other bacteria: Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, pale treponema.
Amoxicillin unprotected no effect on the bacteria that produce beta-lactamase, which makes certain bacteria insensitive to amoxicillin alone.
Almost immediately absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, the mean Cmax - 30-45minut. Bioavailability is 90% of the drug when administered orally. The period T? equal to 60-90 minutes. Communication with blood proteins and minor amounts of up to 20% for amoxycillin and 30% for clavulanic acid. The drug is metabolized in the liver. Amoxil is distributed fairly active in the skin, fat, muscle tissues of the abdominal cavity, hepatobiliary system, and as defined in the synovial, peritoneal fluid. Elimination occurs via the kidneys. Preparation derived predominantly in unmodified form in urine during the first six hours.
Amoxil/Amoxicillin - Indications for use:
- Infectious processes of ENT organs, and lungs;- Infectious processes of the gastrointestinal tract and hepatobiliary system;
- Infectious processes of the urinary tract and kidneys;
- Infectious processes of the skin and soft tissues;
- Infectious processes bone and joints;
- Prevention of postoperative infectious complications.
Mode of application Amoxil/Amoxicillin:
Amoxil is administered orally and infusion.
Oral administration has no connection with the meal preparation is not to chew, swallow whole. Taken with an interval of 8 hours.
Children's age group: 12-24 months - 30 mg per kg body weight of the child, divided into 3 admission. From 2 up to 5 years - 125 mg single dose. With the 5-to 10ti years once 250mg.
Amoxil / klavulant - with 12 years once 1 tablet (625mg) with 12hours interval.
The adult age group: 250-500mg once, severe course and eradication of H. pylori infection - once up to 1g. The maximum 6g for 24hours.
Amoxil / klavulant - once 1 tablet (625mg) with 12hours interval. When CKD (GFR less than 30ml / min) 625mg once daily. In hemodialysis - an additional 1 tablet after dialysis.
Infusion administration - administered intravenously! bolus for 4 minutes, or drip slowly (30-40 minutes) with the interval of 8-12 hours. Enter immediately after dissolution, not stored after dilution. Soluble in physiological saline NaCl, g water / injection. Dissolve each vial of 100 mL of solvent to drip infusion.
The adult age group: sredneterapevticheskih dose of 1000 / 200mg every 8 hours.
The maximum therapeutic dose of 1000 / 200mg every 6 hours.
When CKD (GFR less than 30ml / min) odnokratno1000 / 200 mg, then 500/100 mg every 12 hours.
When CKD (GFR less than 10ml / min) odnokratno1000 / 200 mg, then 500/100 mg every 24 hours.
Hemodialysis odnokratno1000 / 200 mg, then 500/100 mg every 24 hours and further at the end of each dialysis 500 / 100mg.
Amoxil/Amoxicillin Side effects:
Against the background of the drug may develop the following adverse reactions:
Changes in the gastrointestinal tract - nausea, vomiting, frequent stools, pesevdomembranozny or hemorrhagic colitis, often in the background of the tablet form of the drug.
Changes in the liver - increase in liver function tests and enzymes, cholestasis with symptoms of jaundice and inflammation of liver tissue.
Changes in the central nervous system - dizziness, headaches, convulsive readiness.
Allergic reaction - skin rash, urticaria, rarely severe toksikoallergicheskie reaction in the form of Syndrome Stevens - Johnson syndrome and Lyell.
Changes in the urinary system - crystalluria, nephritis interstetsialny.
Changes CCC - rare inflammatory reactions veins localized at the site of ongoing infusion.
Changes in blood - leukocyte reduction level basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, platelets and red cell hemolysis.
Changes in the immune system - hypersensitivity vasculitis, serum sickness.
Often it is developing candidiasis.
Individual intolerance to the drug or its components. The intolerance to penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems. Lactation. Care should be taken during pregnancy.
Caution is used during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester. When lactation in case of treatment Amoxil necessary to abandon breastfeeding during treatment.
Interaction with other drugs:
Aminoglycosides and Amoxil not apply at the same time, because possible mutual inactivation of the active ingredients.
Tetracyclines, macrolides, chloramphenicol act as antagonists with respect to amoxycillin.
Probenecid, NSAIDs, phenylbutazone, diuretics, allopurinol reduced Amoxil excretion in the urine, which increases the risk of adverse reactions.
Allopurinol to background Amoxil increases the likelihood of allergic reactions.
Amoxil reduces the bioavailability of COCs, thereby reducing their pharmacological effects.
Digoxin Amoxil absorbance changes upwards and as a consequence increases its therapeutic effect.
Acenocoumarol or warfarin on the background of Amoxil may alter prothrombin time at high risk of bleeding.
Ascorbic acid Amoxil increases absorption in the intestine.
Antacids, laxatives, food, aminoglycosides, glucosamine reduces the bioavailability of Amoxil.
Amoxil enhances the toxic effects of methotrexate.
In the case of drug overdose observed with gastrointestinal disturbances, changes in fluid and electrolyte balance. Symptomatic treatment with a focus on restoration of electrolyte abnormalities. Rarely observed symptoms of renal failure associated with impaired renal parenchyma as a result of crystallization of amoxicillin. For the elimination of the drug from the bloodstream applied hemodialysis.
Amoxil Product form: Amoxicillin 250mg / Amoxicillin 500mg
Tablets n / a Amoxicillin 250mg blister №10, tablets p / o Amoxicillin 500mg in blister packs №10. 2 blisters in a carton box. Tablets n / a 625 mg blisters number 7. 2 blisters in a carton box. Powder d / n r-ra infusion of 1.2 g vial, № 1. 1 bottle in a cardboard box. Storage conditions: Temperature - up to 25 degrees Celsius. Synonyms: Ospamoks, Panklav, Vampiloks, Augmentin, Amofast, Amoxicillin, Amoxiclav, Amoksikomb, Baktoklav. Composition: The active ingredient - amoxicillin trihydrate. 1 tablet - 250 mg amoxicillin (or Amoxicillin 500mg). Excipients: potato starch, polyvinylpyrrolidone, low-molecular medicine, calcium stearate. 1 tablet - Amoxicillin 500mg, clavulanic acid - 125mg. Excipients: silicium dioxide colloidal anhydrous, krahmalglikolyatNa, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, titanium dioxide, hypromellose, hypromellose, macrogol 4tys, macrogol 6 thousand, dimeticone Amoxicillin 500mg (silicone oil). In 1 vial - 1 g of amoxicillin, clavulanic acid 0.2 g.
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Before taking Amoxil exclude a history of penicillin intolerance, because the drug has a cross-reaction with the latter, which can cause serious toxic and allergic reactions. In case of anaphylactic shock it is recommended to use epinephrine and steroids as a symptomatic treatment.
If you suspect mononucleosis recommended stop taking Amoxil, because against the background of his admission may develop a characteristic rash.
Recommended monitoring coagulation system in patients receiving anticoagulants and Amoxil.
Use caution in patients with chronic renal failure and hepatic insufficiency with obligatory correction dose Amoxil.
Occasionally there is a false (+) Coombs reaction resulting clavulanic acid binding IgG and albumin.
Amoxil penetrates the milk that can cause the risk desensebilizatsii baby, so the period of treatment stop breastfeeding.
If oliguria characterized by the development of crystalluria, often against a background infusion administration. recommended intake of adequate amounts of water to control diuresis To avoid these reactions.
Amoxil has no negative impact on the ability to drive vehicles.
Not applicable in the pediatric age group up to a year of life.